Notes for Authors

About The Process

Authors intending to write a monograph for publication by the Society should initially contact one of the editors, giving the proposed title, together with a brief statement of the scope of the work, the approximate number of taxa and estimate of the number of typescript pages, plates and text-figures, including the proportion to be devoted to non-British material.

Once the title has been accepted by the Council of the Society, authors should prepare their monograph following the ‘Notes for Authors’ below and in the documents linked to the right (if the monograph is a new title) or conform to the style of previous parts (if the submission is to be part of an ongoing monograph). Submission of completed completed monographs is through Editorial Manager linked from the publisher’s website.


Notes for authors

1 February 2022

The previous version (November 2016) for continuing monographs can be downloaded here.


The Society’s monographs

The Palaeontographical Society exists to publish monographs describing and illustrating British fossils. Monographs may be published either as complete works, or as a series of parts. From its foundation in 1847, the Society has aimed at the highest standards of taxonomic treatment, presentation, and illustration.

Authors must study these notes and follow their guidance when preparing typescripts. Any problems should be brought forward at an early stage for discussion with the editors. Many questions can be resolved by studying the style of recent monographs, but these notes supersede previous practice.

Scope of monographs

The fossil group monographed can be circumscribed stratigraphically and/or taxonomically: in either case full treatment is essential. The Society favours monographs covering all the British material of a particular taxon. Where the author chooses to restrict the subject stratigraphically, two points especially should be borne in mind. First, in any consequent geographical restriction of the work, particular care should be taken to ensure that the work complements and does not duplicate other similar monographic works: there should be clear evidence that the author is familiar with material from the same stratigraphical horizon in other areas of Britain. Second, the stratigraphy should be treated as background to the palaeontology. Stratigraphically limited monographs are not to be confused with well-illustrated accounts of the stratigraphy of an area. Comparative non-British material should be discussed in the text as necessary, but the editors must be consulted about the illustration of such material.

All specimens described (whether type, figured, or described in the text) must be deposited in a recognized public institution (accredited museum or university collection). Publication of specimens in personal or privately-owned collections is not permitted.

Submission of monographs

Authors intending to write a monograph should contact the editors (Susan Beardmore, Lucy McCobb, and Benjamin Moon) for consideration by the Council of the Society. Please submit a proposed title, together with a brief statement of the scope of the work, the approximate number of taxa, and an estimate of the number of typescript pages, plates, and text-figures, including the proportion to be devoted to non-British material. Council will then decide whether to accept the work in principle. Single issues usually do not exceed 150 published pages (approx. 300 typescript pages). Separating into a series of parts should strongly be considered for monographs that exceed this.

Once the title has been accepted, authors should prepare their monograph following the notes below (if the monograph is a new title) or conform to the style of previous parts (if the submission is part of an ongoing monograph). In partnership with Taylor & Francis, we use Editorial Manager for online submission to upload materials.


Proofs (as PDF files) will be issued to the corresponding author by the Editor. Corrected proofs must be returned to the Editor as quickly as possible. Restrict your proof corrections to mistakes and printing errors. Attempts to rewrite sections of the monograph after receiving proofs will not be accepted. The cost of excessive alterations to proofs will be charged to the author.


The author or authors receive 10 free printed copies and a PDF to distribute freely.

Financial aid for publication

There is typically no fee for publishing. The Society provides grants up to £300 through the Bulman Fund to help with the preparation of figures for a monograph once accepted by the Council. Applicants should contact the secretary.

Notes for authors

Typescript contents and preparation


Typescripts should be submitted as Microsoft Word or similar editable document including the text sections listed below, as relevant. Text-figures, tables, and plates should be uploaded as separate files.

The typescript should be produced to ISO A4 page size (297 mm × 210 mm), double spaced throughout (including references, plate, and text-figure explanations, etc.), ideally prepared in Microsoft Word (DOCX), ODF Text Document (ODT), or a similar editable file type. Number the pages consecutively at the top right-hand corner and use continuous line numbering for ease of referencing. Keep the typescript well-spaced, as this makes it much easier to revise. Authors are responsible for the accuracy of their text and should carefully check all details such as references, cross-references, plate explanations, citations, and synonymies. A template for Microsoft Word is available on the Society and publisher websites for new monographs.

With the text, submit individual files of all text-figures, tables, and plates with an indication of their intended location within the text and printed size.

Supplemental material

Supplemental information and data can be included alongside the published monograph in electronic form for ease of reuse. Upload these with the initial submission in Editorial Manager and/or provide links to a suitable data archival service (e.g. figshare, MorphoBank) and list all supplemental files and links in the typescript as an appendix. Using common and open standard files is preferred, e.g. comma- or tab-separated text files (CSV or TSV), Microsoft Word or Excel, NEXUS.

Matter to be included

Monograph typescripts should include:

  • Title
  • Abstract with French, German, and Russian translations
  • Contents
  • Introduction
  • Acknowledgements
  • Museum and other abbreviations
  • History of research
  • Stratigraphy
  • Localities
  • Morphology, terminology, techniques, measurements
  • Systematic descriptions
  • Faunal and stratigraphical conclusions (if appropriate)
  • References
  • Author’s name and address
  • Index (for one-part monographs or concluding parts)
  • Descriptions of text-figures, tables, and plates (in that order)

These sections and their order are open to change depending on the material and eventual contents.

Monograph title

This should be as short as possible, identifying the fossil group and, if necessary, the geographical and stratigraphical limits of the work. Avoid using parentheses or brackets.


Give a brief abstract to include the main results of the work, the number of genera and species described, and the number of new taxa; new taxa may be named. Please also supply accurate French, German, and Russian translations of the abstract. If this is not possible contact the editor handling your monograph. An overall abstract will be printed with the final part of multi-part monographs.


This list will typically include primary headings only, and in the systematic section will be restricted to generic or higher taxonomic level. List full contents for single-part monographs and the final part of a multi-part monograph; previous parts should list only those sections in that part.


Keep these as short as possible, e.g. write ‘I thank’ not ‘I would like to thank’. Where it is appropriate to thank the curators of museum collections for lending material in their care, information required in Museum abbreviations may be included here. Note acknowledgements not acknowledgments.

Museum abbreviations

These should be listed separately in alphabetical order of the abbreviation. Foreign institutions should be given their correct title (not translated). Use MDA codes or accepted initialisms.


Three levels of heading are normally used in the non-systematic part of the text:

  1. Primary: centred headings set in all capitals.
  2. Secondary: left-aligned (shoulder) headings set in sentence case capitals and small caps.
  3. Tertiary: indented, run-in headings set in italic sentence case followed by a full stop. For clarity, the next word should not be a fossil name or other word to be set in italics.

Additional details for the systematic section are given below.

Example 1 Formatting of main body headings.


Secondary heading

Tertiary heading. With the body text following.


These should be avoided.


The copyright of monographs published by the Palaeontographical Society is normally assigned to the Society by completion of a copyright form.

Author’s name and address

This is given at the end of the work, at the end of the References. Use capitals and lowercase, right aligned.


As a work of reference, a monograph requires an index that should be of maximum use. While providing a comprehensive index is encouraged, a purely systematic index will be considered by the editors. Provide a list of terms to be included; page numbers will be added at proof stage.

Comprehensive index will contain all localities and horizons, as well as taxonomic names. Generic and specific names (in italics) should be entered in both the “Aus bus” and “bus, Aus” forms. Invalid names may be given in square brackets. Page references will be repeated in both entries; pages containing text-figures should be listed in italics. Pages on which descriptions commence are set in bold type. Plate references are given at the end of the entry following a semicolon.

Systematic index will contain only generic and specific names (in italics) entered in both the “Aus, bus” and “bus, Aus” forms.

For both types of index, all generic and specific names should be entered, including those from synonymy entries and in Remarks and Discussion sections.

Critical comments

Avoid personal attacks when criticizing other work. Disagreements with the scientific findings of another author should always be indicated courteously, without implying a lack of professional competence, and worded in a carefully balanced way. Disparaging remarks may be libellous, and, even if true, should be avoided.

Taxonomic and stratigraphical nomenclature

Nomenclature and taxonomic names

The mandatory provisions of the current editions of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) and the International Code of Nomenclature (formerly ICBN) must be followed.

Taxonomic names above genus level (kingdom to family) are plural and have an initial capital letter. Avoid using ‘the’ before names, i.e. ‘the first occurrence of Carnivora’ or ‘as in family Shastasauridae’ not ‘the first occurrence of the Carnivora’. Informal names are not capitalized, e.g. carnivorans, shastasaurids.

Abbreviating names

Give the generic name in full at the first mention of the species, and subsequently abbreviate this to the initial capital letter (followed by a full stop) unless confusion is likely; spell generic names in full at the beginning of a sentence.


The authorship of generic and specific names should be given at least once in a monograph, usually at the first mention. In the case of authors with the same surname, give the initials (e.g. J. Sowerby, J. de C. Sowerby); where initials and surname are identical give a distinguishing forename (e.g. Derek J. Siveter, David J. Siveter). Use the ampersand (&) in the case of joint authorship.


Full citation of names should follow the convention: authors of original names are included without parentheses after the taxon name followed by the year, separated with a comma, e.g. Ichthyosaurus König, 1818; Portunites incertus Bell, 1858. Where species have been recombined, include the citation in parentheses, e.g. Temnodontosaurus platyodon(Conybeare, 1822).

Name qualifiers

Use the following (not in italics) with fossil names: gen. nov., sp., sp. nov., cf., ex gr., etc. Use italics for non, pars, sicnom. nud., s.s.

Uncertain taxa

Use single quotes around uncertain taxa, i.e. ‘Clathrodictyon’ not “Clathrodictyon”, in italics if around generic or species names.

Include open nomenclature terms before the name to which it refers in upright font, e.g. Ichthyosaurus cf. breviceps (compare to I. breviceps), aff. Agenus (affinity to Agenus) not Ichthyosaurus cf. I. breviceps, but question marks come after the uncertain name, e.g. Ichthyosaurus breviceps? and Ichthyosaurus?, when referring to genus and species names.


Use full specimen numbers and ranges with MDA codes, e.g. NHMUK R1123–1234, BRSMG Ce16696. Specimens must be accessioned in a recognized public institution.


Authors should follow the general principles set out in the International stratigraphic guide, second edition (Salvador, A. [Ed.] 1994; abridged version available online, Murphy, M. A. & Salvador, A. [Eds]). Any deviations from this should be explained. The most recent chronostratigraphical chart can be found here.

Make adequate but brief reference to the stratigraphical units used in the systematic section. Use text-figures to illustrate complex stratigraphy and stratigraphical correlation.

Formal terms such as System, Series, and Biozone should have an initial capital letter in singular form but lowercase in plural form, e.g. Jurassic System but Jurassic and Cretaceous systems. Note Palaeogene but Paleocene.

‘Stage’ versus ‘age’

Use chronostratigraphical (stage, series, system, erathem; lower, middle, upper; referring to depositional groups) or geochronological terms (age, epoch, period, era; earlier, middle, later; referring to events) as related to context. For example, ‘Upper Jurassic System Kimmeridge Clay Formation’ but ‘Late Jurassic Epoch ichthyosaur occurrences’.


For stratigraphical units that contain a taxonomic name (i.e. biozones), quote generic and specific name at first mention, e.g. Colonograptus ludensis Graptolite Zone. The generic name may be abbreviated or omitted thereafter, if no confusion arises, e.g. ludensis Zone. Include both forms in the index.

Terms and classification

Where possible, follow the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology or appropriate recent references on palaeobotany, vertebrate, or microfossil palaeontology. Any innovations should be defined in the introductory text, preferably with recourse to a text-figure in the case of morphological terms.

Monograph style

Above all, the detailed consistency of style, spelling and arrangement of the typescript is a matter to which authors should attend. Typescripts that do not meet the standards of consistency of the Society’s publications will be promptly returned for revision.

Spelling and style

Generally accepted British English spelling and style should be used; consistency is important. Follow the Oxford Guide to Style, Oxford English Dictionary, and Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors, except for deviations described below.

Use –ize endings but analyse, compromise, surmise etc.


Letters removed from the end of a word. Followed by a full stop: pl., fig., tr., loc., e.g., aff., etc. Do not abbreviate the first word in a sentence. Avoid abbreviations in captions or redefine at first use.


Biological not biologic; similarly, palaeobiological.

Book titles

In italics, use title case. Do not italicize part or chapter numbers, e.g. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, part E. Always use the full title.

Brackets and parentheses

Initially use parentheses (, ) to enclose secondary text then brackets [, ] for tertiary level or citations within (e.g. like this [or this]); do not use braces {, }. Repeat these two for successive layers, although deep nesting is a sign to reconsider your sentence structure. Place punctuation inside parentheses where the whole sentence is enclosed, but outside for partial statements.


Abbreviated as c. in italics.

Compass points

Hyphenated and lowercase when written, in full, e.g. south-east England, north-north-west, north-western Wales, butuse capitals for proper names, e.g. West Midlands. For initials, use capitals without full stops, e.g. N, WSW.


Letters removed throughout the word. No ending full stop: pls, figs, Dr, locs etc. Avoid contracting the first word in a sentence.


For all localities, provide British Ordnance Survey grid references (eight-figure = nearest metre, including letters, wherever possible) and/or latitude/longitude coordinates (as decimals) and/or UTM WGS84 coordinates. Give eastings or latitude first. Separate parts of the coordinates with spaces: SO 2256 4551; 52.1022° N 3.13194° W; WGS84 UTM 30U 490963 5772416.

Dashes and rules

Use an en dash for ranges, e.g. 1–8. Use three em dashes for repeated authors in the bibliography, i.e. ———. Typically, don’t use dashes for sentence structure or parenthetical statements.


In line with common usage, data may be singular or plural, but ensure consistency throughout the typescript, e.g. these data or this data.


Write 7 July 2021 in full; do not use st, nd, rd, th for ordinal numbers. For ages, nineteenth century, Victorian era etc. is not capitalized, but capitalize proper names, e.g. Jurassic Period.


° for angles, slope, bearings; °C for temperatures; ° N, ° E (with nonbreaking space) for latitude and longitude.

E.g., i.e.

With full stops between, not followed by a comma.


Follow equals in text with (nonbreaking) space: = Temnodontosaurus.


Follow with a full stop.

Figure, table, and plate ranges

Use commas for two consecutive figures or parts but an en dash for a larger range: figs 1a, b not figs 1a–b but 1a–c, 1a–d, 2–4 etc.


Focuses not focusses; similarly, focused not focussed.


Write out all fractions: one-quarter, three-fifths.


Geographical not geographic; similarly, palaeogeographical.


Use for compound words and phrases, e.g. state-of-the-art, cross-section. Do not use in words such as subquadrate, semicircular, coeval.


Using initial letters from a name or phrase, often for collection or stratigraphic abbreviations. Write in all capitals with no full stops, e.g. BBC, UNESCO, NHMUK. Define all new initialisms in the abbreviations section.


Lists can be included both as unnumbered, with bullet points, and numbered.

  1. Simple inline lists are separated by commas but use semicolons for more complex structures. Include a comma or semicolon before the final item (‘Oxford comma’).
  2. Numbered inline lists have the format: (1) the first item in the list, (2) second item, and (3) final item.
  3. Display lists (like this one) have a hanging number with the text aligned to the indent. Avoid extensive list hierarchies.
  4. Numbered display lists use the format 1., 1.1., 2., 2.1., etc.
  5. Begin each point with a capital letter and end with a full stop.
  • Bulleted lists can be used similarly.
  • With bullets at each level.

Use the spelling on current editions of Ordnance Survey maps and refer to a county or district at first mention. It is helpful to show principal localities and place names on a map; provide coordinates. If used, three-digit bearings should be in degrees clockwise from north. Put a scale and north arrow on all maps. You are responsible for the accuracy of your locality information.

Foreign place names in languages that use the Latin alphabet should be as officially recognized in the country of origin. For languages with non-Latin alphabets, names must be transliterated using up-to-date British Standards.

Don’t use full stops in UK, GB, USA etc.

Ma, mya

Ma (megaannum, and similarly ka, Ga, etc.) refers to both lengths of time and time-before-present, however, usage has preferred mya (million years ago) for before the present and Ma for lengths. Prefer Ma (ka, Ga, etc.) for both unless this would cause confusion.

Names of people

Use initials separated by a point and space: D. J. Siveter; use the full name where there is still confusion: David J. Siveter and Derek J. Siveter.

Non-English terminology

Italicize non-English anatomical names and terms, e.g. vena capitis dorsalis, M. adductor mandibulae externus.


Spell out numbers less than or equal to ten, except when in a range; spell out all numbers at the beginning of a sentence. Large numbers should be in figures. Use figures for measurements, e.g. septa number 5 in 10 mm; a 2 m thick bed.

Do not raise decimal points: use 1.5, not 1·5.

Ordinal numbers

Write out in full without –ly ending: first, second, ninth….


Use % not per cent, without a separating space: 57%.

Personal communication

Write out in full followed by the date: personal communication, 7 July 2021.


Use numerals where a range of characters or specific dimensions is given: e.g. 6–8 tubercles (not 6 to 8). Give number ranges in full: 110–115, 123–134, 145–256.

Separate number and word ranges with an en dash: 1–5, Jurassic–Cretaceous.


Surround quotes with “double quotation marks” and reference with the citation and page (range).

Extensive quotation should generally be avoided but indicate quotation of full passages by a spaced inset paragraph like this one. Retain punctuation from the quote source. (Palaeontographical Society 2021)

Sea level

Sea level not sea-level.


Stratigraphical not stratigraphic; similarly, biostratigraphical, chronostratigraphical, etc.

Thus, therefore

Followed by comma if the first word of a sentence.

UK or British

Ensure clarity in the use of the UK, Great Britain, British, and British Isles. Note Guernsey, Jersey, and the Isle of Man are not part of the UK; the Isle of Man is part of the British Isles.


Use metric ISO units. Separate numbers and units with a (nonbreaking) space: 2 m, 108 µg; prefer µm to microns. Spell out units used on their own: several kilometres. Mile(s) is not abbreviated. Square dimensions have the form: 158 mm × 215 mm.

If original measurements were made in imperial units, however, conversion figures may be added in parentheses in the text. A double scale with both types of units may be added to maps and sections.

Unusual word usage

Use single quotes for unorthodox words or usages, e.g. ‘gingerbread rock’, ‘the Dudley insect’.



Avoid references to pages elsewhere in the monograph where possible since they must be inserted in page proof: ‘above’ or ‘below’ may be adequate. Ideally, direct the reader to the relevant paragraph/section by stating, e.g. ‘See Remarks for Monograptus priodon’.

When referencing plates and text-figures in your own monograph (current or previous parts), capitalize the reference, e.g. Pl. 8, Text-fig. 14. Reference a figure from another publication in lowercase, e.g. (Cox et al. 1980, fig. 1).


For one-part monographs, include a complete (including authors of taxonomic names, works cited in synonymy lists, etc.) list of references immediately before the index. In the first part and subsequent parts of a multi-part monograph give only the references for that part. These will be printed on pages with Roman numeral pagination. With the final part, a complete list will be published, and the earlier reference lists may be discarded before binding.

Carefully check all references. Incorrect or incomplete entries are not only inconvenient to the user of the monograph, but also cast doubt on the general accuracy of the work. Take the reference from the original publication wherever possible, otherwise give the source, thus: [fide Sherborn 1932]. Authors should also take particular care in formatting their references, to save much intricate correction at a later stage.

Style files for EndNote and software using the Citation Style Language (CSL; e.g. Zotero, Mendeley, Papers, and others) are available on the Palaeontographical Society website (or can be downloaded within Zotero) and can automate most of the bibliography formatting. In EndNote there is a special ‘Palaeontogr Soc Monograph’ type created for referencing previous monographs that can be added by importing a Reference Type Table (Preferences > Reference Types > Import…). In Zotero, Palaeontographical Society Monographs are identified as a journal article and by adding ‘Publishing Place: London’ into the top of the Extra field. Some editing to add translated titles, plate numbers, or page references may be necessary.

  1. References are in alphabetical order by first author then by publication date. Where there are multiple references, order alphabetically by subsequent authors before date.
  2. Use an initial capital followed by small capitals for each author’s names (see examples below). Separate authors with a comma or an ampersand before the final author. Separate initials with a full stop and single space.
  3. When citing second and subsequent papers by an author, use three em dashes (———) instead of the author’s name. Apply this to all repeated authors in the same position in each author list.
  4. Follow author names with the year of publication. If two or more of an author’s papers are listed for one year they should be in chronological order and distinguished by a lowercase letter following the date: 1995a, 1995b, etc.
  5. For journal articles, give the exact title but, for works in English, capitalize proper nouns only. Capitals should, however, be used appropriately in those languages that capitalize common nouns. Translate only those titles in non-Latin alphabets. In these cases, enclose both the translated title and a note of the original language in square brackets, e.g. [In Russian].
  6. Journal names and book titles should be given in full title case and set in italics.
  7. Where necessary, either abbreviate series, decade, volume, and part to ser., dec., vol., and pt or preferably use parentheses (before the volume number for series or decade; after for part) and indicate the volume number in bold.
  8. Give the numbers of plates after the page number, accompanied by pl. or pls, e.g. ‘pls 1–4’ or ‘3 pls’.
  9. Places of publication should be quoted in the modern English form; older non-English forms may be given in brackets.
  10. Papers quoted as being in press must have been accepted for publication, and details must be supplied to the editors as soon as they are available.
  11. Unpublished theses should not be referred to unless it is essential. Enclose the whole reference for such theses with square brackets.
  12. Where possible, include the DOI at the end of the reference, preceded by ‘doi:’.

Journal article:

Author, A. B. Year. Article title. Journal Title, (series), volume, page range, plates. doi: DOI


Author, A. B. Year. Book Title. Pages pp., Publisher, City.

Book chapter or section:

Author, A. B. Year. Chapter title. Pp. page range. In Editor, B. C. (Ed.) Book Series Title. Vol. volume. Book Title. Pages pp., Publisher, City.

Palaeontographical Society Monograph:

Author, A. B. Year. Monograph title. Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society, London: Pages pp., plates pls. (Publ. No. issue, part of Vol. volume for 2021.) doi: DOI

Special publication:

Author, A. B. Year. Article title. Pp. page range. In Editor, B. C. & Editor, C. D. (Eds) Publication Title. Series Title volume No. volume. doi: DOI


[Author, A. B. Year. Thesis title. Unpublished Thesis Type, University, City.]

Example 2 Reference section formatting


Bulman, O. M. B. 1929. The genotypes of the genera of the graptolites. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, London, (10), 4, 169–185.

——— 1955. In Moore, R. C. (Ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part V. Graptolithinia, with sections on Enteropneusta and Pterobranchia. xvii+101 pp., Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.

Evitt, W. R. & Whittington, H. B. 1953. The exoskeleton of Flexicalymene (Trilobita). Journal of Paleontology, 27, 49–55, pls 9, 10.

[Kirton, A. M. 1983. A review of British Upper Jurassic ichthyosaurs. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Newcastle-upon-Tyne.]

Levin, H. L. & Joerger, A. P. 1967.  Calcareous nannoplankton from the Tertiary of Alabama. Micropaleontology, 13, 163–182, 4 pls.

Maxwell, E. E. & Caldwell, M. W. 2003. First record of live birth in Cretaceous ichthyosaurs: closing an 80 million year gap. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences Supplement, 270, S104–S107. doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2003.0029

——— & ——— 2006. A new genus of ichthyosaur from the Lower Cretaceous of Western Canada. Palaeontology, 49, 1043–1052. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-4983.2006.00589.x

Swift, A. 1995. Conodonts from the Late Permian and Late Triassic of Britain. Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society, London: 80 pp., 6 pls. (Publ. No. 598, part of Vol. 147 for 1995.)

Underwood, G. 1970. The eye. Pp. 1–98. In Gans, C. & Parsons, T. S. (Eds) Biology of the Reptilia. Vol. 2. Morphology B. xiv+374 pp., Academic Press, London & New York.

Wu, Hong-Ji. 1977. [Comments on new genera and species of Silurian and Devonian trilobites in southwest China and their significance]. Acta Palaeontologia Sinica, 16, 95–117, 3 pls. [In Chinese, English abstract, p. 117.]

Yochelson, E. L. 1979. Early radiation of Mollusca and mollusc-like groups. Pp. 323–359. In House, M. R. (Ed.) The origin of major invertebrate groups. Systematics Association special volume No. 12.


Use author-year citations surrounded by parentheses. Abbreviate citations to works with three or more authors using et al. in italics, e.g. (Cox 1993), Smith & Wood (1970), (Donovan et al. 2008).

Combine multiple citations sorted in alphabetical order of the authors’ surname then by publication date and separate with semicolons, e.g. (Cox 1993; Donovan et al. 2008; Smith & Wood 1970). Disambiguate multiple citations from the same year by adding the lowercase letter matching the reference. Abbreviate multiple citations by the same author(s) separated by commas, e.g. (Cox 1962, 1994; Fischer et al. 2011a, b, 2012; Smith & Wood 1970).

Note that citations are not modified between parts. In multi-part monographs, if an author is cited in the first part, then a separate publication by the same author and year is cited in a subsequent part, the subsequent citations then pick up the disambiguation letter. As an example, in the first part Cox (1993) is cited, then Cox (1993a) is added in the second part; they remain as Cox (1993, 1993a) in citations and references.

Separate page, figure, table, and plate references by commas where included, e.g. Cox (1993, p. 20); (Cox 1993, p. 20); (Cox 1993, p. 22, pl. 1, figs 2, 3); (Cox 1993, p. 23, pl. 3, fig. 7, pl. 4, figs 7–9; Fischer et al. 2011b, p. 5; Smith & Wood 1970).

Personal communications should be spelt in full followed by the date, e.g. personal communication to SK on 28 June 2021.

Illustrations and tables

Monographs include two types of illustration: full-page photographic plates at the end of an issue and text-figures within the main body of text. Online PDFs may contain full colour images, but print production is typically in greyscale; including printed colour images should be discussed in advance with the Editors. Indicate the intended positions of text-figures and numbered tables in the main text.

Please prepare text-figures and plates as single image files (Photoshop [PSD], EPS, PDF, or TIFF) at production size using image software such as Adobe Photoshop, Affinity Photo, or GIMP, or vector software such as Adobe Illustrator, Affinity Designer, or Inkscape, and upload these through the Editorial Manager submission system.

Explanations of all text-figures and tables should be brought together at the end of the typescript and followed by an explanation of the plates.


The maximum printed size of a text-figure is 158 mm × 215 mm (7465 px × 10157 px at 1200 dots per inch [dpi]): folding text-figures and tables will not normally be considered. Very large text-figures should be drafted to occupy two facing pages. In drafting text-figures aim to use the full width of the page, for example by arranging text-figures side by side.


The maximum area of plate illustration is 180 mm × 230 mm (4252 px × 5433 px at 600 dpi); make the fullest use of this space.


Prepare plates and text-figures containing photos at production size at 600 dpi, to be submitted as Photoshop (PSD), EPS, or TIFF files through the Editorial Manager submission system.

Avoid large areas of full black or white. Add figure numbers (on plates) and letters (lowercase on text-figures) in Arial, Helvetica, or Liberation Sans (or similar) at 9-point font size.

Line illustrations

Submit line illustration text-figures at production size in vector format PDF files or as 1200 dpi TIFF image files. Lettering must be clear: the smallest letters should be at least 1 mm (3 pt) in height.

Plate explanations

Type the explanations of plates on separate pages and include them at the end of the typescript. Study the layouts which have been used in recent monographs and use a style appropriate to your material, if necessary, after consultation with the editors. The maximum amount of information should be included for each figure on a plate; some of this may be grouped conveniently as centred headings, under which several figures may be listed.

Typically, plate explanations use a three ‘column’ format (figure number, figure description, page reference) separated by tabs. Note that there is no full stop after the figure number(s) in the left-hand column of plate descriptions. Page numbers will be populated during the proofing stage.

Example 3 Example layout for plate explanations.

Example formatting for the plate descriptions


Tables should generally be typeset and included in the run of the typescript; clear alignment and adequate spacing of the original is necessary. As folding tables are unacceptable, consider using two facing pages for large tables.

Example 4 An example table and formatting. Lengths in millimetres.

An example table showing general formatting recommendations

For text-figures or tables, include captions after the references, before the plate explanations. Include all shown abbreviations within each caption. Captions begin with Text-fig. 1. or Table 1., etc, respectively.

Systematic descriptions

The style of this section must follow that of the examples given below. Again, authors should check format details closely to show the structure clearly in editing and proofing.

This section will usually begin with the hierarchical systematics. This should be centred, with each taxon on a separate line. Higher taxon names should be followed by the author and publication year, “tax. nov.” or “gen. nov.” as appropriate. Phylogenetic clade names may or may not be prefaced with “Clade”; citation of definitional and emending authors should follow PhyloCode article 20, see for example the monograph of Moon & Kirton (2016, Publ. 650, doi:10.1080/02693445.2016.11963958).

Species name headers are left aligned (shoulder) headings with the full species name in bold followed by the author and publication year, or “sp. nov.” as appropriate. List the plates then text-figures depicting the species separated from the species by a 2-em space.

Taxonomic and descriptive subsections within the systematic palaeontology section use tertiary-style headings: indented run-in headings set in italics. Descriptions of multi-element taxa may be separated by element using tertiary headings, beginning with, e.g. Description. Premaxilla. then Maxilla., etc.

  1. Do not underline the specific heading, which is printed in bold
  2. The synonymy should describe the history of nomenclature of the taxon; suitably annotated, much discussion can be avoided. To this end, Richter Symbols should be used, as in the imaginary example below (see Matthews, S. C. 1973, Palaeontology, 16, (4), 713–719). Also note the value of appending locality and museum information, etc. in square brackets after an entry (see e.g. Kelly’s monograph 1984, 1992).

Note that, to be available, newly named taxa covered under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature require registration in ZooBank This should only be done after acceptance of the final version and LSIDs for the act(s) and publication can be inserted before the proof stage.

Example 5 Systematic Palaeontology formatting.

This publication has the LSID

Class APODIA Wurms, 1887
Subclass BATHYRABBA Oaff, 1977
Order PIPERSCONOIDA Bore, 1890
Family Rhymiidae O’Leary & Yang, 1863
Genus POLYPUTTA Grimm & Grimmer, 1920

v .          1847     Abra sp.; Pargeter, p. 41, pl. 4, fig. 1 [Wearisome Formation (Fantasian), East Grinstead].
.             1850    Rhymia alba Black; Gren, p. 56, pl. 34, figs 6a–c.
              1899     Rhymia alba; Pewsey, p. 4.
v non     1910     Rhymia alba Black; Bindweed, p. 278, pl. 45, figs 7–13 [= Polyputta longispina].
vp .        1929a  Polyputta alba? (Black); Tyresomb (pars), p. 111.
              1944    Polyputa (sic) alba; Smythe, p. 7 [discusses distribution].
vp          1955     Polyputta alba (Black); Smythe, p. 24, pl. 19, figs 3, 7 only [Black Rab Formation,
                          Clackhuddersfax]; non figs 4–6 = P. nigra (White).
v*          1968     Polyputta ketalon, Sewsey, p. 2, pl. 1, figs 1–19 [full synonymy].
              1978     Polyputta ketalon Sewsey; Brew, p. 55, pl. 4, fig. 1.

Type species. By subsequent designation of Grimethorpe (1964, p. 108); Nasticreechia climbupya Melville, 1882; originally described from the Charsui Formation, Guizhou Province, People’s Republic of China.

Genus LSID.

Other species. P. alba (Black, 1848); P. ketalon Sewsey, 1968; P. longispina (Cowper, 1946).

Diagnosis. Convex Rhymiidae with…

Polyputta ketalon Sews, 1968  Pl. 7, figs 1–7; Pl. 8, figs 3, 6, 13–15, 17; Text-fig. 11a

Type material. Holotype, CAMSM Y99999, Pl. 7, figs 1–3, specimen lacking posterior knurl; figured Sewsey 1968, pl. 1, figs 1–5; from the Black Rab Formation, Llareggub, Gwynedd (PX 1354 7864). Paratypes, CAMSM Y99990–99998, fragmentary tests from the same horizon and locality as the holotype.

Species LSID.

Material, localities, and horizons. BGS GSM11111–11129; BU 6855, 6865. The species is known only from the type horizon. Collected at locs 26, 30–35, 45.

Diagnosis. Species of Polyputta with 12 pairs of…

Description. Intersegmental convioles parabolic, …

Remarks. Notwithstanding the…

Genus SABULONIA Dither & Trembles , 1877b
(= Gerroffia Constable, 1890 [non Sargent, 1815];
Paragerroffia Constable, 1890; Turbatrix Boudica, 1970)

Type species. By original designation; Uhelpus chousi Ferrett, 1851, p. 88, pl. 16, figs 1a, b; from the Blandian of the White Forest district, Polonia.

Genus LSID.

Other species. Sabulonia pinguicula sp. nov.

Diagnosis. Anterior shelf serrate…

Sabulonia pinguicula sp. nov.  Pl. 3, fig. 4; Pl. 4, figs 1, 2; Text-fig. 5

Name. Latin ‘pinguicula’ – somewhat fat, referring to the outline.

Holotype. NHMUK Xe56487, Pl. 3, fig. 4, complete external mould of dorsal shield; from limestone nodule in shale band in Nonsuch Formation, exposed in old quarry tramway, 550 m 135° from Erehwon Post Office (MP 6743 9875), Rutland.

Paratypes. From horizon and locality of the holotype: NHMUK Xe56479–56502, dorsal shields; Xe56503–56509, ventral scutes; Xe56510–56524 lateral pinnules. From locality 34: BGS GSM T54321, ventral scute. From ‘Ballymatoich, Co Dunghrubeagh’ (probably I.G.R. T 274 684): NMING 1990.G8.8117, ventral scute.

Species LSID.

Diagnosis. Species of Sabulonia with…

Distribution. Abroad, the species is known from the Adhoc Formation (Grubstakian) of Wyoming (Schrubsole 1981, p. 11).

Useful keyboard shortcuts

macOS has a character picker called with Ctrl+Cmd+Space; Windows has the character map for viewing all the characters of Unicode. Microsoft Word also has the symbol menu (Insert > Advanced Symbol); keyboard shortcuts can be customized here.

Character Symbol Microsoft Word macOS Windows
Copyright © ⌥G [option-G] Alt+0169
First column ° ⌥⇧8 [option-shift-8] Alt+0176
Em dash Ctrl+Alt+Numpad- or ⌘⌥+Numpad- ⌥⇧- [option-shift-hyphen] Alt+0151
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Nonbreaking space ‘ ’ ⌥ [option-space] Alt+1060

Originally compiled by Alan Thomas and Jana Hutt, 22 April 1996; modified by David Loydell, 26 June 2008; modified by Yves Candela and Peter Crowther, 29 November 2016; modified by Benjamin Moon, Peter Crowther, Yves Candela, and Susan Beardmore, 31 January 2022.